CHRIST THE MEDIATOR
A. pleased God: Is. 42: 1; Jun. 3:16.
B. In His eternal purpose: 1 Peter 1:19.
C. Choose and ordain the Lord Jesus, His only begotten Son, according to the covenant made between them: Psalm 110: 4; I have 7:21, 22.
D. To be the mediator between God and man; prophet, priest and king; head and Savior of the church, the heir of all things and judge of the world: 1 Tim. 2: 5; Acts. 3:22; I 5: 5, 6; Psalm 2: 6; Lk. 1:33; Eph.1:22, 23; 5:23; I 1: 2; Acts. 17:31.
E. Who gave, from all eternity, a people to be his seed and to his time redeemed, called, justified, sanctified , and glorified: Ro. 8:30; June 17. 6; Isa. 53:10; Ps 22:30; 1 Tim. 2: 6; Isa . 55: 4, 5; 1 Cor 1:30.
A mediator is an intermediary. He is someone who acts as an intermediary between two or more people or groups in dispute and try to reconcile them. In biblical terms, humans are considered at enmity against God. We have rebelled, and revolutionized refused to obey God's law. As a result, the wrath of God is upon us. To modify or redeem this catastrophic situation, we need to be reconciled to God.
To make our reconciliation, God the Father appointed and sent his Son as our Mediator. Christ brings us nothing more and nothing less than divine majesty of God Himself He is God incarnate. However, it took upon itself a nature human and voluntarily submitted to the demands of the law of God.
Christ did not begin reconciliation in an attempt to persuade the Father to put aside his anger. By contrast, in the eternal counsel of Divinity was total agreement between the Father and the Son so that the Son came as our Mediator. No angel could come as God's representative; only God Himself could do that.
In the Incarnation, the Son took upon himself human nature for the redemption of fallen seed of Adam.
By His perfect obedience, Christ satisfied the demands of God's law and obtained eternal life for us. For its submission to the atoning death on the cross, he satisfied the demands of God's wrath against us. Both from a positive outlook as negative, Christ satisfied the divine conditions for reconciliation.
We made a new covenant with God through His blood and continues daily interceding for us as our High Priest.
An effective mediator is someone who is able to achieve two conflicting parties, or far apart, achieve peace.
This is the role that Jesus served as our perfect Mediator. Paul declared that we have peace with God through Christ's work of reconciliation: "Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ" (Romans 5: 1).
The mediating work of Christ is superior to the work exerted by any other mediator. Moses was the mediator of the Old Covenant. It was the intermediary of God, by giving the Israelites the law. But Jesus is superior to Moses. The author of the book of Hebrews declares: Because of more glory than Moses countedworthy this, hath greater honor than the house which did ... And Moses indeed was faithful in all God's house as servant ... but Christ (was true) as a son over his house, whose house are we (Hebrews 3: 3-6).
1. A mediator works to achieve reconciliation between two remote parts.
2. Christ as the God-man reconciles us with the Father.
3. Christ and the Father agreed from eternity that Christ should be our Mediator.
4. The work of mediation of Christ is superior to that of the prophets, the angels, and Moses.
BIBLICAL PASSAGES FOR REFLECTION
Romans 8: 33-34, 1 Timothy 2: 5, Hebrews 7: 20-25, Hebrews 9: 11-22.
One of the great contributions to a Christian understanding of the work of Christ is the exhibition of John Calvin on the threefold mission of Christ as Prophet, Priest and King]. As the prophet of God par excellence, Jesus was the object and the subject of prophecy. His person and his work are the focal point of Old Testament prophecies, but he himself was also a prophet.
The kingdom of God and the role that Jesus would play in that coming kingdom are major themes in the prophetic claims of Jesus. The main function of a prophet was to convey the Word of God. Jesus communicated the Word of God, but also
The same is the Word of God. Jesus was the supreme prophet of God, being the Word of God in the flesh.
The Old Testament prophet was a kind of mediator between God and the people of Israel. He spoke to the people as God's representative. The priest spoke of God as representative of the people. Jesus also fulfilled the role of the High Priest.
The Old Testament priests offered sacrifices regularly, but Jesus offered a sacrifice of eternal value, once and forever. The offering of Jesus to the Father consisted in the sacrifice of himself. He was offering and that ofrendaba.
While in the Old Testament mediators offices of prophet, priest and king were exercised by different individuals, these trades are exercised supremely in the person of Jesus. Jesus fulfilled the messianic prophecy of Psalm 110. He is a descendant of David and David's Lord. He is the priest who is also King. The Lamb that is sacrificed is also the Lion of Judah. To understand the work of Christ in its entirety, we should not consider it merely as a prophet, or a priest, or a king. All these three offices were perfectly fulfilled by Him.
1. Jesus was the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies and he himself was a prophet.
2. Jesus was the priest and sacrifice. As Priest, He offered himself as the perfect sacrifice for sin.
3. Jesus is the anointed King of Kings and Lord of Lords.
BIBLICAL PASSAGES FOR REFLECTION
Psalm 110, Isaiah 42: 1-4, Luke 1: 26-38, Acts 3: 17-26, Hebrews 5: 5-6.
A. The Son of God, the second person in the Holy Trinity, being very and eternal God, the brightness of the glory of the Father, consubstantial with him and like him, who made the world, and who upholds and governs all things he has done: Jun. 8:58; Jl. 2:32 with Rom. 10:13; Psalm 102: 25 with He 1:10; 1 Peter 2: 3 with Psalm 34: 8; Is . 8: 12,13 with 3:15; June 1: 1 . ; 5:18; 20:28; Ro. 9: 5; Tit. 2:13; I 1: 8.9; Phil. 2: 5,6; 2 Peter 1: 1; 1 Jun. 5:20.
B. : When the fullness of time came Gal. 4: 4.
C. He took upon himself the nature of man, with all the essential properties: I 10: 5; Mark 14: 8; Mt. 26: 12,26; Lk. 7: 44-46; 13:23 June.; Mt. 9: 10-13; 11:19; Lk. 22:44; I 2:10; 5: 8; 1 Peter 3:18; 4: 1; June 19. 32-35; Mt. 26: 36-44; Stg. 2:26; June 19:30.; Lk. 23:46; Mt. 26:39; 9:36; Mr. 3: 5; 10:14; 11:35 June.; Lk. 19: 41-44; 10:21; Matthew 4: 1-11; I 4:15 with James. 1:13; Lk. 5:16; 6:12; 9: 18.28; 2: 40.52; I have 5: 8, 9.
D. And with its attendant weaknesses: Mt. 4: 2; Mr. 11:12; Mt. 21:18; June 4. 7; 19:28; 4: 6; Mt. 8:24; Ro.8: 3; I have 5: 8; 2: 10.18; Gal. 4: 4.
E. Though sinless: Is. 53: 9; Lk. 1:35; 8:46 June.; 14:30; Ro. 8: 3; 2 Cor 5:21; I 4:15; 7:26; 9:14; 1 Peter 1:19; 2:22; 1 June 3: 5 . .
F. As conceived by the Holy Spirit in the womb of the Virgin Mary, coming upon it the Holy Spirit and cover the Almighty with his shadow; and so it was made of a woman from the tribe of Judah, of the seed of Abraham and David according to the Scriptures: Rom. 1: 3.4; 9: 5.
G. So, two whole, perfect and distinct natures were inseparably joined together in one person, without conversion, composition , or confusion. This person is truly God: Tit. 2:13; I 1: 8.9; Phil. 2: 5,6; 2 Peter 1: 1; 1 Jun. 5:20.
H. And truly man: Acts. 2:22; 13:38; 17:31; 1 Cor 15:21; 1 Tim. 2: 5.
I. Although one Christ, the only mediator between God and man: Rom. 1: 3.4; Gal. 4: 4,5; Phil. 2: 5-11.
The most important names of Christ are:
1. JESUS . This name is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew name Joshua. Joshua 1: 1; Zechariah 3: 1; or Jesus, Ezra 2: 2. It is derived from the Hebrew word meaning "save" and designates Christ as Savior, Matthew 1:21. Two types of Christ in the Old Testament took this name, namely, Joshua the son of Nun and Joshua the son of Jehozadak.
2. Christ. The word Christ is the equivalent in the New Testament of the Hebrew "Messiah" which means "the anointed one". According to the Old Testament, the prophets, 1 Kings 19: 6, the priests Exodus 29: 7 and kings 1 Samuel 19: 1 were anointed with oil, symbolizing the Holy Spirit. This anointing noted that had been set aside for their respective tasks., And were qualified to exercise them. Jesus Christ was anointed by the Holy Spirit for the threefold office of prophet, priest and king. From a historical standpoint, this anointing took place when it was conceived by the Holy Spirit and when he was baptized.
3. Son of Man. This name, when applied to Christ, is derived from Daniel 7:13. Jesus is a name that is generally given to himself and others rarely use. Even when it contains an indication to the human nature of Christ, in the light of its historical origin it leads us to his superhuman character and his future coming in the clouds of heaven with glory and splendor, Daniel 7:13; Matthew 16:27, 28; 26:24 and Luke 21:27.
4. Son of God. Christ was called "Son of God" in various ways. It was so named because it is the second person of the Trinity and so is God, Matthew 11:27, but also because it is the chosen Messiah, Matthew 24:36, and because his birth was due to the supernatural work of the Holy Spirit, Luke 1:35.
5. Lord. Jesus' contemporaries sometimes used this name for Jesus as a way of talking politely, as we use the word "sir." Shortly after the resurrection of Christ this name takes on a special meaning much deeper. In some passages it designates Christ as possessor and governor of the Church, Romans 1: 7, Ephesians 1:17 and other occupies the same place that should take the name of God, 1 Corinthians 7:34; Philippians 4: 4- 5.
The Bible presents Christ as a being endowed with two natures, divine and human. Great is the mystery of godliness that God has manifested in the flesh, 1 Timothy 3:16.
Since many today deny the divinity of Christ, it is necessary to emphasize the biblical evidence of it.Some passages of the Old Testament and direct us to this doctrine, Isaiah 9: 6, Jeremiah 23: 6, Micah 5: 2, Malachi. 3: 1. In the New Testament, the evidence is very abundant, Matthew 11:27; 16:16; 26: 63.64 John 1: 1,18; Romans 9: 5; 1 Corinthians 2: 8; 2 Corinthians 5:10; Philippians 2: 6; Colossians 2: 9; Hebrews 1: 1-3; Revelation 19:16.
None of those who accept the existence of Christ denies his humanity. In fact, the only detail of divinity that many give is to possess a perfect humanity. Anyway there is abundant evidence of the humanity of Christ. Christ speaks of himself as a man, John 8:40, and others call it so, Acts 2:22; Romans 5:15; 1 Corinthians 15:21. Christ had the essential elements of human nature, namely, body and soul, Matthew 26: 26,38; Luke 24:39; Hebrews 2:14. In addition, he was subject to the ordinary laws of human development, Luke 2:40, 52, and the needs and human suffering, Matthew 4: 2; 8: 2; Luke 22:44; John 4: 6; 11:35; 12:27;Hebrews 2:10, 18; Hebrews 5: 7, 8. However, despite being a real man, Christ was without sin.
He did not sin, nor could sin, John 8; 46; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Hebrews 4:15; 9:14; 1 Peter 2:22; 1 John 3: 5. It was necessary that Christ was both God and man. Just as a man could be our substitute, and as such suffer and die, and only as a man without sin could pay for the sins of others. But it was only as God could give His sacrifice infinite value, and take upon himself the wrath of God, in order to deliver others from it, Psalm 40: 7-10; 130: 3.
Christ had a human nature, but it was not human person. The Person of the Mediator is the Son of God immutable. In the incarnation, Christ was not changed in a human person, nor adopted for itself a human personality. Christ assumed, more than his divine nature, human nature. This human nature did not develop an independent personality, but personalized in the Person of the Son of God. By taking this human nature, the person of the Mediator was to divine and human, that is, God and man, possessing all the essential qualities of the divine and human natures.
Christ is divine and human consciousness, at the same time a divine and human will. This is really a mystery that we can not conceive. The scriptures clearly teach this unit in the person of Christ. It is always the same person who speaks, whether express facts divine and human, John 10: 30; 17: 5 compared to Matthew 27: 46; John 19: 28. Sometimes even human actions and attributes are presented to us as the work of the Person of Christ in his divinity Acts 20:28; 1 Corinthians 2: 8; Colossians 1: 13-14. Sometimes divine attributes and actions are imputed to the person of Christ under a name designating his humanity, John 3:13; 6:62; Romans 9: 5.
In the early Church the Alogi-Ebionistas and they denied the divinity of Christ. In the days of the Reformation, also the Socinians denied this truth "and today the Unitarians and Modernists deny it too. Also in the early Church we find the case of Ario who denied the full divinity of Christ and spoke of him as a semi God. on the contrary, Apolinario did not recognize his full humanity and maintained that the divine Logos took the place of the human spirit in Christ. Nestorius and his followers denied the unity of the two natures in one person, and Eutique s and his disciples did not arrive to distinguish between the two natures in the proper form.
1. Isaiah 9: 6. "For a child is born , to us a son is given us; and upon His shoulder, and His name will becalled Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. "
2. Jeremiah 23: 6. "In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell alone and this is his name call him , The Lord our righteousness."
3. John 1: 1. "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God."
4. Romans 9: 5. "Whose are the fathers, and of whom is Christ according to the flesh, who is God over all, blessed forever."
5. Colossians 2: 9. "For in him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily."
1. John 8:40. "But now you seek to kill me, a man that hath told you the truth, which I heard from God."
2. Matthew 26:38. "Then Jesus said unto them, My soul is sorrowful even unto death; tarry ye here, and watch with me. "
3. Luke 24:39. "Look at my hands and my feet, that I am, handle me and see; the spirit hath not flesh and bones as you see I have. "
4. Hebrews 2:14. "So, since the children have flesh and blood, he also partook of the same, that through death he that had the power of death, that is, the devil".
1. John 17: 5. "Now, Father glorify thou yourself with the glory which I had with thee before the world was."
2 . John 3: 13. "No one has ascended to heaven, but he that descended from heaven, the Son of man which is in heaven."
3. 1 Corinthians 2: 8. "Which none of the princes of this world knew; for if they had known, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. "
1. In what way were Joshua son of Nun (Zechariah 3: 8-9) and Joshua son of Jozadak (Hebrews, 4: 8), types of Christ?
2. What do the following passages teach us, about the anointing of Christ? Psalm 2: 2; 45: 7; Proverbs 8:23; Isaiah 61: 1.
3. What has Christ as divine attributes Isaiah 9: 6; Proverbs 8: 22-31; Micah 5: 2; John 5:26; 21: 17?What divine works? Mark 2: 5-7; John 1: 1-3; Colossians 1: 16-17; Hebrews 1: 1-3. What divine honors? Matthew 28:19; John 5: 19-29; 14: 1; 2 Corinthians 13:14.
A. The Lord Jesus, in his thus united to the divine, in the person of the Son, was sanctified and anointed with the Holy Spirit without measure, taking itself all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, in whom it pleased human nature to father that all fullness, so that being holy, innocent and undefiled, and full of grace and truth, was fully capable to execute the office of mediator and guarantor: Psalm 45: 7; Col. 1:19; 2. 3; I 7:26; 1:14 June.; Acts. 10:38; I have 7:22.
B. Which she did not take for himself, but was called to it by his father, who also placed in his hands all power and judgment, and ordered him to fulfill: I 5: 5; June 5th. 22.27; Mt. 28:18; Acts. 2:36.
A. The Lord Jesus very willingly assumed this office: Psalm 40: 7-8 with Hebrews 10: 5-10; 10:18 June.;Phil. 2: 8.
B. and to discharge, born under the law : Gal. 4: 4.
C. The perfectly he fulfilled and suffered the punishment due us, which we should have taken and suffered:Mt. 3:15; 5:17.
D. Being made sin and a curse for us: Mt. 26: 37.38; Lk. 22:44; Mt. 27:46.
E. Enduring the most terrible afflictions in his soul and the most painful sufferings in his body: Mt. 26-27.
F: He was crucified and died, and remained in the state of the dead, but without seeing corruption: Phil. 2: 8; Acts. 13:37.
G. On the third day he rose from the dead with the same body in which he suffered: Jun. 20:25, 27.
H. With which he also ascended into heaven: Acts. 1: 9-11.
I. And there sitteth at the right hand of the Father interceding: Ro. 8:34; I have 9:24.
J. and return to judge men and angels at the end of the world: Acts. 10:42 Ro. 14: 9, 10; Acts. 1:11; Mt. 13: 40-42; 2 Peter 2: 4; Jud. 6.
In addition to obey the law perfectly throughout their lives on our behalf, Christ also experienced the suffering required to pay the penalty for our sins.
In a broad sense the punishment that Christ suffered to pay for our sins was suffering both in body and soul throughout his life. Although Christ's suffering culminated in his death on the cross (see below), all his life in a fallen world suffering involved.
For example, Jesus endured tremendous suffering during his temptations in the wilderness (Matthew 4: 1-11), where for forty days he endured the attacks of Satan. 5 And he suffered to grow in maturity, "Although he was a Son, through suffering he learned obedience" (Heb 5: 8). He knew the suffering faced intense opposition from Jewish leaders throughout much of his earthly ministry (see Hebrews 12: 3-4).
We can also assume that experienced suffering and sadness at the death of his earthly father, and certainly also experienced because of the death of his close friend Lazarus Gn 11: 35). In predicting the coming of the Messiah, Isaiah said would be a "man of sorrows, acquainted with grief" (Isaiah 53: 3).
The sufferings of Jesus intensified as you approach the cross. Les told his disciples something of the agony he was experiencing when he said: "It is anguish size that invades me, I feel like dying" (Mt 26: 38).
It was on the cross where Jesus' sufferings reached their climax, because it was there that he bore the punishment due to our sins and died in our place. The scriptures teach us that there were four different aspects of pain that Jesus experienced:
PHYSICAL PAIN AND DEATH.
We need not assert that physical pain Jesus suffered more than any human being has ever suffered, because the Bible nowhere makes that claim. But yet we must not forget that death by crucifixion was one of the most horrible forms of execution invented by man.
Many readers of the Gospels in the ancient world would have witnessed a crucifixion and that would create a vivid and painful mental image when reading the words "and crucified '(Mt 15: 24).
A death row inmate who died crucified essentially saw himself forced to inflict a slow death by asphyxiation. When the arms of the convicted were extended and fastened by nails to the cross, he had to hold most of your body weight with your arms.
In this position, the chest cavity had difficulty breathing and get renewed air. But when the need for air of the victim became unbearable, she had to do everything possible to push up on his feet, giving a more natural support for your body and relieving the arms of body weight, and thus could breathe a little better.
Striving to raise the body leaning feet crucified could relieve choking, but resulted in painful for him to end because it meant putting all the pressure to hold the body on the nails that held her feet and bend your elbows and push up on the nails that held his wrists. The back of the crucified, who had been flogged repeatedly by the lashes inflicted, it would brush against the wood of the cross with every movement.
So Seneca (first century AD) spoke of the crucified as people who "snuffed up the vital air amid intense agony" (Ep 101, Lucio, section 14).
A doctor who wrote in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1986 explained the pain I used to experience the condemned to death by crucifixion person:
Breathing a proper process requires lifting Body Pushing With Feet And Flexing Elbows ... However, this put everything Movement The weight on the shanks and produced a sharp pain.
In addition, bending elbows It caused Rotation Around Dolls Iron Nails Fiero pain and caused nerve damage. Muscle Cramps and paresthesia in the arms extended and Raised was added to the discomfort. As a result, every effort to breathe It was agonizing and exhausting AND WEARING Final asphyxiation.
In some cases, the crucified men survived several days, almost asphyxiated but without dying. That was the reason why the implementers sometimes broke the legs of the crucified, so that death befalling quickly, as we see in John 19: 31-33:
It was the day of preparation for Easter. The Jews did not want the bodies left on the cross on Saturday, as this is a very solemn day. So they asked Pilate to order that the legs broken Les crucified and the bodies taken down. So were the soldiers and broke the legs of the first man who was crucified with Jesus, and then the other. But when Jesus came and saw that he was already dead, did not break legs.
CARRY THE PAIN OF SIN
More awful pain Jesus endured physical suffering was the psychological pain of being burdened with the guilt of our sins. In our experience as Christians we know something of the anguish we feel when we have sinned.
The burden of guilt is tremendous on our hearts, and there is a bitter sense of separation from all that is right in the universe, an awareness of something that in a very deep sense should not be. In fact, the more we grow in holiness as God's children, the more we feel this instinctive revulsion against evil.
Now, Jesus was perfectly holy. He hated sin with his whole being.
The concept of evil, sin, contradicted everything in his character. Much more than we do, Jesus instinctively rebelled against evil. Yet, in obedience to the Father, and for our sakes, Jesus took upon himself all the sins of all who would one day be saved. It upon himself all the evil against which his soul rebelled created a deep disgust at the center of his being. All that abhorred deeper was being poured over it.
The Scriptures say often that Christ bore our sins: "The Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all" (Isaiah 53: 6), and "bore the sin of many (Is 53: 12). John the Baptist pointed to Jesus as "the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world" Gn 1:29). Paul declares that God "treated him as a sinner" (2 Cor 5: 21) and that Christ "curse for us" (Gal 3: 13) was made.
The author of Hebrews says that Christ "was sacrificed once to take away the sins of many" (Heb 9: 28).And Peter says, "himself, in his body, led to the tree our sins" (1 P 2:24).
The passage of 2 Corinthians quoted above, along with the verses of Isaiah, indicate that it was God the Father who bore our sins upon Christ. How was that possible?
In the same way that Adam's sins were imputed to us or God imputed our sins to Christ; ie the declared belonging to Christ, and since God is the supreme judge and definer of what really is in the universe, when God thought that our sins belonged to Christ, really belonged to Christ.
This does not mean that God concluded that Christ indeed had committed those sins, and that Christ himself had really a sinful nature, but rather means that God declared that the guilt of our sins (ie, the responsibility to pay the punishment) was Christ and not us.
Some have objected that it was not fair that God did this to transfer the guilt of sin from us an innocent person, Christ. But we must remember that Christ willingly took upon himself the guilt of our sins, so that this objection loses much of its force. Moreover, God Himself (Father, Son and Holy Spirit) are the supreme law of what is just and right in e! universe, and he decreed that atonement would take place in this way, and that really meet their demands of righteousness and justice.
The physical pain of crucifixion ye! pain upon himself and! absolute evil of our sins worsened by e! that Jesus faced this pain alone. In the Garden of Gethsemane, when he took Peter, John and James, he expressed them something of the agony he felt: "It is anguish size that invades me I feel like dying.
Stay here and keep watch "(Mark 14: 34). This is the kind of confidence that one expresses a close friend, and involves a plea for support in times of great trial.
However, as soon as arrested Jesus "all the disciples forsook him and fled" (Mt 26: 56).
Here we also have a certain analogy of our experience, because we can not live long without proving the internal pain! rejection, whether the rejection of a close friend, a parent or child, or a spouse. However, in those cases hayal least the feeling that we could have done something differently, that at least some part of us are guilty.
That was not the situation with Jesus and his disciples, for "having loved his own who was in e! world, he loved them to the end "Genesis 13: 1). He had done nothing but love them; but they abandoned him.
But far worse than the defection of his closest human friends was the fact that Jesus was deprived of closeness with e! Father had been her deepest joy throughout his earthly life. When Jesus said, "EH, EH, lama sabachthani? (Which means "My God, my God, why hast desamparador '" (Mt 27: 46), he showed that he was completely separated from the sweet fellowship with his heavenly Father had been the constant source of inner strength . and the element of their greatest joy in a life full of pain When charging Jesus with our sins on the cross, was abandoned by his heavenly Father because "are so pure your eyes that can not see the evil" (Hab 1: 13 ). Jesus stood alone the burden of guilt of millions of sins.
CARRY THE WRATH OF GOD
However, more difficult than these previous aspects of pain Jesus was e! pain take upon himself the wrath of God. When Jesus take only the guilt of our sins, God the Father, and! Almighty Creator, and! Lord of the universe, poured it on Jesus the fury of his wrath: Jesus became e! object of intense hatred for sin and vengeance against sin that God had patiently accumulated since the beginning of the world.
Romans 3:25 tells us that God gave Christ as "propitiation" (atoning sacrifice), word meaning "sacrifice bears the wrath of God until the end and that the changes made for the wrath of God against us." Paul tells us that "God presented him as a sacrifice of atonement, through faith in his blood, to demonstrate His righteousness.
Earlier in his forbearance he had passed over the sins; but this time it has offered to Jesus Christ to demonstrate His righteousness. Thus God is just and, at the same time, e! who justifies those who have faith in Jesus "(Romans 3: 25-26). God had not only forgiven and forgotten sin punishment in past generations. He had forgiven the sins and had accumulated anger against those sins. But on the cross the fury of all the accumulated anger against sin was unleashed against the Son of God himself.
Many theologians outside the evangelical world have strongly objected to the idea that Jesus suffered the wrath of God against sin. Its basic assumption is that since God is a God of love, would be inconsistent with his character vent their anger against human beings he has created and who is a loving Father.
But evangelical scholars have convincingly argued that the idea of the wrath of God is deeply rooted in the Old and New Testaments: "The whole argument of the first part of Romans has to do with men, Jews and Gentiles, that they are sinners, and who have fallen under the wrath and condemnation of God. "
Three other key passages in the New Testament refer to the death of Jesus as a "propitiation" Hebrews 2: 17; 1 John 2: 2 and 4: 1O. The Greek terms (the hilaskomai verb, "to make a propitiation" and hilasmos name, "a propitiation ') used in these passages denote" a sacrifice that turns away the wrath of God, and thus makes God suitable (or favorable) to us. "
This is the consistent meaning of these words outside the Bible where they were well understood in reference to the Greek pagan religions. These verses simply mean that Jesus bore the wrath of God against sin.
It is important to stress this fact because it is centrally located in the doctrine of the atonement.
It means that there is an eternal and unalterable holiness and justice of God to be paid for sin requirement. In addition, before the atonement could have an effect on our subjective consciousness, he first had to affect their relationships with God and sinners he planned to redeem. Apart from this central truth, the death of Christ can not be understood properly (see below explore other perspectives on atonement).
Although we should be cautious in suggesting analogies of the experiences that Christ passed (because their experience was and always will be unprecedented or comparison), however, all our understanding of Jesus' suffering is in some sense by way of similar experiences life, because that is the way God teaches us in Scripture.
Once again our human experience provides us with some weak analogy that helps us understand what it means to bear the wrath of God. Perhaps as children we have faced the wrath of a human father when we have done something wrong, or maybe as adults we have known the anger of a boss for a mistake we made. Inside we feel crushed, disturbed by the force of the other personality, full of dissatisfaction in the depths of our being, and tremble.
It costs us imagine personal disintegration that threaten us if this storm of anger not from a finite human being but of Almighty God. If even the very presence of God as manifested no anger, it causes fear in people (Heb 12: 21, 28-29), how terrible it must be to face the wrath of God (Heb 10: 31).
With this in mind, we are now in a better position to understand the cry of desolation of Jesus: "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" (Mt 27: 46).
The question does not mean, "Why did you leave me forever?" Because Jesus knew he was going to leave the world and return to the Father Gn 14: 28; 16: 10, 17). He knew that he would rise Gn 2:19; Lk 18:33;Mr 9:31; et al.). "For the joy set before him he endured the cross, despising the shame she meant, and now sits at the right hand of the throne of God" (Heb 12: 2) .Jesus knew he could still invoke God and call him "my God". This cry of desolation is not a cry of utter despair.
Moreover, "why have you forsaken me?" Does not imply that Jesus be wondering why I was dying. He had said, "Not even the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve and to give his life a ransom for many" (Mk 10: 45).
Jesus knew he was dying for our sins. The cry of Jesus is a quotation from Psalm 22: 1, Psalm in which the psalmist asks why God does not come to their aid, why God is delay in rescue: My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
Far deliverance are Away From My Words sorry. My God, I cry day and do not answer me; I cry at night and have no rest. (Ps 22: 1-2)
However, God ultimately rescued the Psalmist, and their cry of desolation changed to a hymn of praise (vv. 22-31), Jesus, who knew the words of Scripture as its own, knew the context of Psalm 22. cite this psalm, he is citing a cry of desolation that is also implicit in context unwavering faith in God that in the end will free. However, it remains a genuine cry of anguish because suffering was spreading far and did not seem to be close release.
In this context the appointment understand much better the question "Why hast thou forsaken me?" As if to say, "Why have you left me for so long? '. This is the meaning in Psalm 22. Jesus, in his human nature, he knew he had to bear our sins, suffer and die. But in his human knowledge probably he would not know how long this suffering.
However, take upon himself the guilt of millions of sins, if only for a moment, would cause great anguish of soul. Facing deep and terrible wrath of an infinite God, even for a moment, it would cause the deepest fear. But Jesus' suffering would not end in one minute, not two, not ten. When will it end?
Could there even more weight of sin, God's wrath? The hours passed, the dark weight of sin and deep wrath of God fell upon Jesus in waves upon waves. Jesus end shouting: "Why hast thou forsaken me" Why must this suffering last that long? My God, my God, can you do this is over already?
Then finally Jesus knew that his suffering was nearing completion.
He knew he had consciously loaded with all the Father's wrath against our sins because God's anger had subsided and the terrible weight of sin was relieved. He knew that all 10 missing was delivering his spirit into the Father's hands and die.
With a cry of victory, he said, "It is finished" (Jn 19: 30). Then he exclaimed loudly: "Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!" (Lk 23: 46). And then he willingly gave his life that no one could take away (Jn 10: 17-18), and died. As Isaiah had predicted, "he poured out his soul unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors" (Is 53: 12). God the Father was the "fruit of the travail of his soul" and was satisfied (Is 53: 11, RVR 1960).
A. The Lord Jesus, by His perfect obedience and sacrifice of himself, Rom. 5:19; Eph. 5: 2.
B. They offered God once through the eternal Spirit: I have 9:14, 16; 10:10, 14.
C. It has fully satisfied the justice of God: Rom. 3:25, 26; I 2:17; 1 June 2: 2;. 4:10.
C. has earned reconciliation: 2 Corinthians 5:18, 19; Col. 1: 20-23.
D. and purchased an everlasting inheritance in the kingdom of heaven: I 9:15; P . 5: 9, 10.
E. for all those whom the Father has given him: Jun. 17: 2.
A. Even though the price of redemption was not actually paid by Christ till after his incarnation, yet the virtue, efficacy , and benefits thereof were communicated to the elect in all ages from the beginning of the world: Gal . 4: 4, 5; Rom. 4: 1-9.
B. In the promises, types and sacrifices and through them, in which was revealed and identified as the seed that would bruise the head of the serpent , Gn. 3:15; 1 Peter 1:10, 11.
C. And the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world: Ap. 13: 8.
D. Being the same yesterday, today and forever: Hebrews 13: 8.
If we ask, "Who he demanded that Christ paid the penalty for our sins?" The answer that the Scriptures give us is that the punishment was imposed by God the Father to represent the interests of the Trinity in redemption. It was the righteousness of God demanding that it pay for sin, and among the members of the Trinity, was the role of the Father require that payment.
God the Son willingly took upon himself the task of carrying the penalty of sin. Referring to God the Father, Paul says: "Whoever no sin [Christ], for us God made him a sinner, that in it the righteousness of God" (2 Co 5:21). Isaiah says: "The Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all" (Isaiah 53: 6).
He goes on to describe the sufferings of Christ: "Lord to crush him and make him suffer, and how he gave his life in atonement" (Is 53: 10).
Here we see some of the amazing love of God the Father and God the Son in redemption. Jesus not only knew who suffer incredible pain of the cross, but God knew he had to impose the pain on his own beloved Son. "God shows his love for us in this: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us" (Romans 5: 8).
ETERNAL SUFFERING BUT NOT FULL PAYMENT
If we had to pay the penalty of our sins, we would have to suffer eternal separation from God. However, Jesus did not suffer eternally. There are two reasons for this difference:
(A) If we suffer for our sins, we could never attain a right standing with God. There would be no hope because there is no way to live again and get perfect righteousness before God, and would not have way to correct our sinful nature and make it straight before God. In addition, we would continue toexist as sinners who do not suffer with pure hearts of righteousness before God, but would suffer with resentment and bitterness against God, and thus aggravating our sin.
(B) Jesus could bear the wrath of God against our sin and make it to the end. No human being could do this ever, but under the union of the divine and human natures in himself, Jesus could suffer the wrath of God against sin and make it to the end. Isaiah foretold: "You will see the fruit of the travail of his soul and be satisfied" (Is 53: 11, RVR 1960). When Jesus knew he had paid the full penalty for our sins, he said: "It is finished" Jn 19: 30).
If Christ had not paid the full penalty, there would still doom for us. But since it has fully paid the punishment we deserved, as the Scriptures say that "there is no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus" (Rom 8: 1).
It will help us at this time realize that nothing in the eternal nature of God and nothing in the laws that God has given mankind required that there be eternally suffer the punishment of the sins of man. In fact, if there were eternal suffering, punishment would not be paid in full, and whoever does evil continue to be a sinner by nature.
But when the sufferings of Christ at last came to an end on the cross, he showed that he had taken upon himself the full measure of God's wrath against sin and that there was more punishment than would be paid. It also showed that he was just before God.
In this sense, the fact that Christ suffered for a limited time instead of eternally shows that their suffering was a sufficient payment for sin. The author of Hebrews repeats the theme again and again to emphasize that the redemptive work of Christ was completely finished:
Neither he entered heaven to offer himself again and again, as the high priest in the holy place every year with blood of others. If so, Christ would have had to suffer many times since the creation of the world.On the contrary, now, at the end of time, he has appeared once and for all to end sin by the sacrifice of himself.
And as it is appointed for men to die once, and then come Judgment, also Christ was sacrificed once to take away the sins of many; And already not to bear any sin, but to bring salvation to those who are waiting will appear a second time. (Heb 9: 25-28)
This emphasis of the New Testament in the final and completeness of the sacrificial death of Christ contrasts with the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church that in the Mass there is a repetition of Christ's sacrifice. Because of this official teaching of the Roman Catholic, many Protestants since the Reformation, Church and still today, they are convinced that they can not participate in good conscience at the Mass of the Roman Catholic Church, because that could be seen as a approval of the Catholic idea that the sacrifice of Christ is repeated every time the Mass is celebrated.
The purpose of sacrifice is e! himself in the sacrifice of the Mass as in e! sacrifice of the cross; first the glorification of God, and secondly atonement, thanksgiving and appeal.
The emphasis of the New Testament in the final and complete character of the sacrifice and death of Christ has many practical implications, because it assures us that there is no punishment for sin that is left to pay. The punishment was fully paid by Christ, and we ought not to live in any fear of condemnation or punishment.
THE MEANING OF THE BLOOD OF CHRIST
The New Testament often related to the blood of Christ with our redemption. For example, Peter says, "As you know, you were rescued from the empty way of life inherited from their ancestors. The price of the ransom was not with perishable things such as silver or gold, but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish or defect "(1 Peter 1: 18-19).
The blood of Christ is the clear external evidence that shed his blood when he died in sacrifice to pay our redemption, "the blood of Christ" means his death in his saviors aspects. Although we may think that the blood of Christ (as evidence that gave his life) would have exclusive reference to the elimination of our judicial guilt before God because that is their primary-reference the New Testament authors also attributed other various effects.
Our consciences are purified by the blood of Christ (Heb 9: 14), we have free access to God in worship and prayer (Acts 10: 19), we are purified progressively from sin is (1 John 1: 7; Rev. 1: 5b ), we can conquer the accuser of the brethren (Rev. 12: 10-11), and we are rescued from a sinful way of life (1st Peter 1: 18-19).
The Scriptures speak much about the blood of Christ because the spill was clear evidence that his life was given in a judicial execution (ie, was sentenced to death and died to pay the penalty imposed both by a human judge by God Himself in the sky).
The emphasis of Scripture in the blood of Christ we see it also in the clear relationship between the death of Christ and the many sacrifices in the Old Testament that involve the shedding of blood of the slaughtered animal alive. All these sacrifices pointed forward and foreshadowed the death of Christ.
CHRIST'S DEATH AS "REPLACING CRIMINAL"
The prospect of Christ's death presented here has often been called theory of "penal substitution".Christ's death was "criminal" that he carried a punishment when he died. His death was also a "replacement" in the sense that he took our place when he died.
This has been the Orthodox understanding of atonement sustained by evangelical theologians, in contrast to other perspectives that attempt to explain the atonement apart from the idea of God's wrath or payment for the penalty of sin (see below).
This view of the atonement is sometimes called the theory of vicarious atonement.
A "vicar" is someone who represents another or is instead. The death of Christ was therefore "vicarious" because he took our place and represented us. As our representative, he suffered the punishment we deserved.
The atoning work of Christ is a complex event that has several effects on us. It can be seen therefore from several different aspects.
The New Testament uses different words to describe them; we will examine four of the most important terms.
These four terms show how the death of Christ satisfied the four requirements we have as sinners:
1. We deserve to die as punishment for sin.
2. We deserve to suffer the wrath of God against sin.
3. We are separated from God because of our sins.
4. We are enslaved to sin and Satan 's kingdom.
These four requirements are satisfied by Christ's death as follows:
Christ died for us in sacrifice to pay the death penalty that we deserved for our sins. "At the end of the times, has appeared once and for all to end sin by the sacrifice of himself" (Heb 9: 26).
To turn away from the wrath of God that we deserved, Christ died in expiation for our sins. "In this is love: not that we have to God, but that he loved us and sent his Son to be offered as a sacrifice for the forgiveness of our sins" (1 Jn 4: 10).
To overcome our separation from God, we needed someone that would provide us reconciliation and thereby brought back into fellowship with God. Paul says that "In Christ, God was reconciling the world to himself, not counting their sins" (2 Cor 5: 18-19).
Because as sinners we are enslaved to sin and Satan, we need someone to give us redemption and thus we "redeem" from that bondage. When we speak of redemption, the idea of "rescue" comes to mind.
A ransom is the price paid to redeem someone from slavery or captivity. Jesus said of himself: "The Son of man [not] come to be served but to serve and to give his life a ransom for many" (Mk 10: 45). If asked who paid the ransom, we realize that human analogy ransom does not fit well with the atonement of Christ in every detail.
Although we were subjected to slavery of sin and Satan, no "ransom" was not paid or the "sin" or Satan because they had no power to demand that payment, nor Satan, whose sanctity was marred by sin and he had to pay a penalty for it. As we saw earlier, the punishment of sin was paid and received Christ and God the Father accepted.
But we hesitate to discuss pay a "ransom" to God the Father, because it was not he who had enslaved us, but Satan and our own sins. Therefore, in this regard the idea of a ransom payment can not be used in every detail. It is sufficient that we note that a price (the death of Christ) was paid and the result was that we were "redeemed" from slavery.
We were redeemed from slavery to Satan because "the whole world is under the control of the evil one" (1 Jn 5: 19), and when Christ came died to "deliver them who through fear of death were subject to slavery all life "(Heb 2: 15). In fact, God the Father "delivered us from the dominion of darkness and brought us into the kingdom of his beloved Son" (Col 1:13).
As for the liberation from the bondage of sin, Paul says: "count yourselves dead to sin but alive to God in Christ Jesus. For sin shall not have dominion over you, because they are not under law but under grace "(Rom 6:11, 14). We have been freed from the bondage of sin's guilt and slavery of its dominant power in our lives.
A. Christ, in the work of mediation, acts according to both natures, by each nature through what is proper to it; although, because of the unity of the person, which is proper to one nature is sometimes in Scripture attributed to the person denominated by the other nature: Jun. 3:13; Acts. 20:28.
A. To all those for whom Christ has obtained eternal redemption, certainly and effectually apply and communicate the same: John 6: 37,39; 10: 15,16; 17: 9.
B. Making intercession for them: 1 June 2: 1,2;. Ro. 8:34.
C. uniting them to himself by his Spirit: Rom. 8: 1.2.
D. revealing in the Word and through it the mystery of salvation: Jun. 15: 13,15; 17: 6; Eph. 1: 7-9.
E. persuading them to believe and obey: June 1 5:20..
F. governing their hearts by His Word and Spirit: Jun . 14:16; I have 12: 2; Ro. 8: 9.14; 2 Cor 4:13; Ro. 15: 18,19; Jun. 17:17.
G. And overcoming all their enemies by his almighty power and wisdom: Ps 110: 1; 1 Cor 15: 25,26; Col 2:15.
H. So and in ways that best match his wonderful and unsearchable dispensation: Eph. 1: 9-11.
I. And all for the free and absolute grace, without any condition foreseen in them to granjearla: June 1 . 3: 8; Eph. 1: 8.
A. This office of mediator between God and man is proper only to Christ, who is the Prophet, Priest and King of the church of God; and can not, whole or in part, be transferred from him to any other: 1 Tim. 2: 5.
A. This number and order of trades are necessary; So our ignorance, we need his prophetic office: Jun.1:18.
B. And our separation from God and the imperfection of the best of our services, we need his priestly office to reconcile us to God and accepted introduce to him: Col. 1:21; Gal. 5:17; I 10: 19-21.
C. And our unwillingness and inability to complete return to God and to redeem ourselves and protect usfrom our spiritual adversaries, we need his kingly office to convince, subdue, draw us , sustain, deliver and preserve us for his heavenly kingdom: May . 16: 8; Psalm 110: 3; Lk. 1: 74.75.
We often use the words "state" and "condition" interchangeably. Speaking of the states of Christ, we use the word "state" in a more precise sense, denoting the relationship that remained and still remains with respect to the law. In the days of His humiliation, Christ was a servant under the law; in his exaltation Lord is above the law. It is therefore natural that these two states carry with them different living conditions, and we will study in the different phases of these states.
In it, Christ emptied himself of divine glory which was his as Sovereign of the universe and assumed a human nature, taking the form of a servant. The Supreme Lawgiver was subject to the requirements and curse of the law. Matthew 3:15; Galatians 3:13; 4: 4; Philippians 2: 6-8. This state of humiliation is presented under various phases:
In the incarnation the Son of God became flesh and took a human nature, John 1:14; 1 John 4: 2. a real member of the human race to be born of the Virgin Mary was made. If, as the Anabaptists claimed Christ had brought from heaven human nature, it would not have become a member of the human race. The Bible teaches the virgin birth in several passages, Isaiah 7: 14; Matthew 1:20 and Luke 1: 34-35. This wonderful birth was due to the supernatural influence of the Holy Spirit, who at the same time preserved human nature of Christ from the pollution of sin and from its very conception, Luke 1:35.
We often speak of the sufferings of Christ as limited to their final agony, but this is false. His whole life was a life of suffering. It was the life of a servant who was Lord of lords, and a life in the midst of sin who knew no sin itself. Satan tempted him, his people hated him and his enemies pursued him. The sufferings of his soul were even more intense than your body. He was tempted by the devil, oppressed by a world of wickedness around him, and afflicted by the burden of sin that rested upon Him, was "a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief." Isaiah 53: 3.
When we talk about the death of Christ we mean physical death. Christ did not die as a result of an accident, not under the hand of a murderer, but under a court ruling and was numbered with the transgressors (Isaiah 53:12). To suffer death under Roman punishment of crucifixion, he died a bloody death, taking upon Himself our curse, Deuteronomy 21:23; Galatians 3:13.
It seems as if death on the cross was the final phase of their suffering. Did not Jesus say "It is finished"?These words refer to its active suffering, but Christ continued still suffering. His burial was also part of his humiliation, and that the Son of God became fully aware. Man's return to earth was part of the punishment for sin, Genesis 3:19. That the Savior had to go down to the grave it is also part of his humiliation as Psalm 16:10; Acts 2:27, 31; 13:34, 35. Such humiliation knocked us the terror of the grave.
The words of the Apostles' Creed "descended into hell (or hades), they have had different interpretations. The Roman Catholic declined to say where the Limbus Patrum Old Testament saints were to give them freedom; Lutherans teach that between his death and resurrection, Christ came down to. hell to preach and celebrate their victory over the powers of darkness.
Possibly we have a figurative expression denoting: 1) who suffered the agonies of hell in the garden and on the cross, and 2) Christ entered its deepest agony and humiliation by his death, Psalm 16: 8-10;Ephesians 4: 9.
In his state of exaltation, Christ passed his state of submission to the law as a covenant obligation, since it had paid the penalty of the law and deserved justice and eternal life for the sinner. He was also crowned with honor and glory due to him. There are four different stages in this aggrandizement:
The resurrection of Christ consisted of a mere assemblage of body and soul, but a special that his human nature, both body and soul were restored to their original beauty and strength, and raised to a much higher still level mode. Contrary to all who had risen before Him, Christ rose with a spiritual body, 1 Corinthians 15: 44-45. For this reason it has been called "the first fruits of them that slept" 1 Corinthians 15:20, and "the firstborn from the dead" Colossians 1:18; Revelation 1: 5.
The resurrection of Christ has a triple meaning:
1) It was a statement by Father that Christ had fulfilled the demands of the law, Philippians 2: 9.
2) he symbolized the justification, regeneration and final resurrection of believers, Romans 6: 4, 5, 9; 1 Corinthians 6:14; 15: 20-22.
3) It was the cause of our justification, regeneration and resurrection, Romans 4:25; 5:10; Ephesians 1:20; Philippians 3:10; 1 Peter 1: 3.
The ascent was in a sense the necessary complement to the resurrection, but also had a special meaning.We have a double narrative of it, namely, Luke 24: 50-53 and Acts 1: 6-11. The apostle Paul in Ephesians 1:20; 4: 8-10; 1 Timothy 3:16 and the Epistle to the Hebrews emphasizes its meaning in 1: 3; 4:14; 6:20;9:24. It was a visible ascension of the Mediator, according to human nature, going from earth to heaven, and from one place to another. It included a new glorification of the human nature of Christ.
The Lutherans have otherwise. For them it was a change in physical condition in which the human nature of Jesus came to fully enjoy certain divine attributes, and became permanently omnipresent. In ascension, Christ our High Priest entered the innermost sanctuary place to present his sacrifice to the Father and begin His intercessory work on the throne, Romans 8:34; Hebrews 4:14; 6:20; 9:24.
Christ ascended to heaven to prepare a place, John 14: 1-3. With we are already seated in heavenly places and ascension assures us that we have a place reserved in heaven, Ephesians 2: 6; John 17:24.
After the ascension, Christ is seated at the right hand of God, Ephesians 1:20, Hebrews 10:12 1 Peter 3:22. The phrase "right hand of God" can not be taken in its literal sense, but that is a figure indicating the place which Christ occupies in their glory and power. During this period at the right hand of God, Christ governs and protects His Church, directs the course of the universe for the good of His Church, and intercedes for his people on the basis of his sacrifice completed.
The exaltation of Christ reaches its climax when he returns to judge the living and the dead. His second coming will be visible body and Acts 1:11; Revelation 1: 7. That Jesus Christ will return as Judge is evident from passages like these, John 5:22, 27; Acts 10:42; Romans 2:16; 2 Corinthians 5: 10; 2 Timothy 4: 1.
We do not know the time of his second coming. Christ will return to judge the world and complete the salvation of his people. This will be the final victory of his redemptive work. 1 Corinthians 4: 5; Philippians 3:20; Colossians 3: 4; 1 Thessalonians 4: 13-17; 2 Thessalonians 1: 7- 10; 2: 1-12; Titus 2:13; Revelation 1: 7.
1. Galatians 3:13. "Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us (for it is written: Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree).
2. Gá1atas 4: 4, 5. But the time had come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of children.
3. Philippians 2: 6-8. Who, being in very nature God had not robbery to be equal with God; however, he emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, made in human likeness; and being found in human form , he humbled himself and became obedient unto death, even death on a cross.
1. John 1:14. "And the Word was made flesh and dwelt among men and saw his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth.
2. Rom. 8: 3. "For what was impossible by the law, because I was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh."
1. Isaiah 7:14. "Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son and call his name Emmanuel."
2. Luke 1:35. "And the angel answered and said unto him , The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore also that holy born will be called the Son of God. "
1. Psalm 16:10. "Thou wilt not leave my soul in Sheol (Hades in Acts 2:27); nor let your Holy One see corruption. "
2. Ephesians 4: 9. " Now that he ascended, what is it that he also descended first into the lower parts of the earth?"
1. Rom. 4:25. "Who it was delivered for our offenses and raised for our justification."
2. 1 Corinthians 15.20. "But now Christ is risen from the dead; firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. "
1. Luke 24:51. "And he blessed them left; and he was carried up into heaven.
2. Acts 1:11. "Which also said , Galileans Va rums why do you stand looking into heaven? This Jesus who has been taken up from you into heaven shall so come, as you have seen him go into heaven. "
1. Ephesians 1:20. "Which he wrought in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated at his right hand in Heaven."
2. Hebrews 10:12. "But he, having offered one sacrifice sins forever, is sitting at the right hand of God."
1. Acts 1:11. (See the text quoted above.)
2. Revelation. 1: 7. "Behold coming in the clouds, and every eye will see, and those who pierced him; and all the tribes of the earth mourn because of Him. "
1. What does the Old Testament about Christ's humiliation in the following passages? Psalm 22: 6-20;69: 7-9; 20:21; Isaiah 52:14, 15; 53: 1-10; Zech. 11: 12-13.
2. What is the special value of the temptations of Christ in what we are concerned? Hebrews 2:18; 4:15;5: 7-9.
3. How do the following passages that Heaven is a place rather than a condition? Deut. 30:12; Joshua 2:11; Psalm 139: 8; Ec1es. 5: 2; Isaiah 66: 1; Rom. 10: 6, 7
The Bible tells us that Christ has a threefold ministry and speaks of Him as Prophet, Priest and King.
The Old Testament predicted that Christ would come as a prophet, Deuteronomy 18:15 (see Acts 3:23).Jesus himself speaks of himself as a prophet in Luke 18:33, and alleges that brings a message of the Father, John 8: 26-28; 12: 49-50; 14:10, 24, predicts the future, Matthew 24: 3-35; Luke 19: 41-44, and speaks with unique authority, Matthew 7:29.
It is therefore not surprising that the people recognize him as a prophet, Matthew 21:11, 46; Luke 7:16;24:19, John 6: 14; 9:40; 9:17. A prophet is a person who receives divine revelations in dreams, visions and verbal messages and transmits them to people in word or by prophetic actions visible, Exodus 7:11;Deuteronomy 18:18; Numbers 12: 6-8; Isaiah 6; Jeremiah 1: 4-10; Ezekiel 3: 1-4, 17.
His work belongs to the past, present and future. One of his most important tasks was to interpret the people's moral and spiritual aspects of the law. Christ was a prophet in the Old Testament, 1 Peter 1:11; 3: 18-20. He was also a prophet when he was on earth, and continued such work, the operation of the Holy Spirit upon the apostles after the ascension, John 14: 26; 16: 12-14; Acts 1: 1. Even now his prophetic ministry continued through the preaching of the Word and spiritual enlightenment imparted to believers.This is the only function that recognizes the modernist theory in Christ.
The Old Testament also predicted that the Redeemer would be a priest, Psalm 110: 4; Zechariah 6:13;Isaiah 53. In the New Testament there is only one book in which Christ is called the priest, the letter to the Hebrews, but there are times this repeated name, 3: 1; 4:14; 5: 5; 6:20; 8: 1. However, there are other books that refer to his priestly work, Mark 10:45; John 1:29; Romans 3: 24-25; 1 Corinthians 5: 7; 1 John 2: 2; 1 Peter 2:24; 3:18. While a prophet represents God before the people, the priest represented the people before God.
Both also were teachers, but while the former taught the moral law, the other taught the people the ceremonial law. In addition, the priests had the special privilege of approaching God, and to speak and act on behalf of the people, Hebrews 5: 1, teaches us that the priest was chosen from humans to be his representative, who was chosen by God and acted before him for the benefit of men, and offered gifts and sacrifices for sins. At the same time he interceded for the people.
The priestly work of Christ was in a special way, to offer a sacrifice for sin. The Old Testament sacrifices were types pointing the way to the great sacrifice of Christ, Hebrews 9: 23-24; 10: 1; 13:11 12. Hence Christ is called "the Lamb of God," John 1:29 and << our Passover "1 Corinthians 5: 7. The New Testament clearly speaks of the priestly work of Christ in many passages: Mark 10:45; John 1:29; Romans 3: 24-25; 5: 6-8; 1 Corinthians 5: 7; 15: 3; Galatians 1: 4; Ephesians 5: 2; 1 Peter 2:24; 3:18; 1 John 2: 2; 4:10 Revelation 5: 12. References are even more frequent in the Letter to the Hebrews 5: 1-10; 7: 1-28; 9: 11-15, 24-28; 10: 11-14, 19-22; 12:24; 13:12.
Besides offering the great sacrifice for sins, Christ as priest, also he is interceding for His people. It is called our Paraclete by deduction from John 14:16 and explicitly in 1 John 2: 2. This word means "one who is called to help an attorney who defends the cause of another." In the New Testament, Christ is called our intercessor in Romans 8:34; Hebrews 7:25; 9:24; 1 John 2: 1.
His intercessory work is based on his sacrifice, and is not limited, as some have thought, to intercessory prayer. Christ presents his sacrifice to God, and on that basis asks spiritual blessings for his people, defends accusations of Satan, the law and conscience, obtains forgiveness for all those charges that are fair, and sanctifies their worship and service mediation of the Holy Spirit. His intercessory work is limited in its nature, as it refers only to the elect of God, but includes all elected, whether they are already believers as if they are still in a state of disbelief, John 17: 9, 20.
As the Son of God, Jesus Christ has by nature the universal dominion of God. In distinction to this universal rule, we speak now of the majesty that was conferred him in his ministry of Mediator. This majesty is of two kinds: His spiritual dominion over the Church, and his mastery of the universe.
The Bible speaks of it in many places, Psalm 2: 6; 132: 11; Isaiah 9: 6-7; Micah 5: 2; Zechariah 6:13; Luke 1:33; 19:38; John 18: 36-37; Acts 2: 30-36. The majesty of Christ in its real sovereignty over its people. We call it spiritual because it has to do with a spiritual kingdom established in the hearts and lives of believers, has spiritual aims pursued, that is the salvation of sinners; and its administration is also spiritual through the Holy Word and the Holy Spirit.
His practice covers the meeting, government, protection and improvement of the Church. Both this government and its limits in the New Testament are the names of "kingdom of God" and "kingdom of heaven". In the strict sense, only believers, members of the invisible Church, are citizens of this kingdom.
But the term "kingdom of God" is sometimes used in a broader sense, including all those who live where the Gospel is proclaimed, even those who have a place in the visible Church, Matthew 13: 24¬30, 47- fifty.The kingdom of God on the one hand, is a spiritual and present reality in the hearts and lives of men, Matthew 12:28; Luke 17:21; Colossians 1: 18, but the other is also a future hope, will not take place until the second coming of Christ, Matthew 7:21; Luke 22:29; 1 Corinthians 15:20; 2 Timothy 4: 18; 2 Peter 1: 11. This future kingdom is in essence the same realm as the present, that is, the government of God established and recognized in the hearts of men.
But it will also be different because it will be a visible and perfect kingdom. Some believe that the kingdom of Christ shall cease His second coming, but the Bible tells us very clearly that the kingdom of Christ is eternal, Psalm 45: 6; 72:17; 89: 36-37; Daniel 2:44; 2 Samuel 7:13, 16; Luke 1:33; 2 Peter 1:11.
After His resurrection Christ told his disciples, "All power is given unto me in heaven and on earth" Matthew 28:18. This same truth is repeated in 1 Corinthians 15:27 Ephesians 1: 20-22. This power should not be confused with the original majesty of Christ as the Son of God, even if it has to do with the same domain. This power given to Christ has to do with that majesty granted to Christ in his capacity as Mediator of the Church.
Christ as Mediator is now guides the destiny of individuals and nations, it controls the life of the world and makes it subject to His redemptive purposes. Also protects the Church of the dangers to which it is exposed in the world. This majesty of Christ will continue until Christ has obtained complete victory over all enemies of the kingdom of God. When such work has been carried out, Christ will return this glory to the Father, 1 Corinthians 15: 24-28.
1. Deuteronomy 18: 18. "raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like you; I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him. "
2. Luke 7:16. "And all were afraid, and glorified God, saying , A great prophet has arisen among us; and God has visited his people. "
1. Psalm 110: 4. " The Lord has sworn and will not repent: Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek."
2 . Hebrews 3: 1. "Therefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus."
3. Hebrews 4:14. "Having therefore a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession."
1. Hebrews 5: 1, 5. "For every high priest taken from among men, it is ordained for men in things pertaining to God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins ... So Christ not he glorified himself made a high priest, but he that said , you are my son, today I have begotten you. "
2. Isaiah 53: 5. "But he was wounded for our transgressions, bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; And with his stripes we are healed. "
3. Mark 10:45. "For the Son of Man he came not to be served but to serve and give his life a ransom for many."
4. John 1:29. "Behold the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world."
5. 1 Peter 2:24. "He himself bore our sins in His body on the tree, that we might die to sin and live to righteousness."
6. 1 John 2: 2. "And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only but also for the whole world."
1. Romans 8:34. " It is Christ that died; further, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us. "
2. Hebrews 7:25. "Therefore you can also eternally save those that come unto God he, always lives to intercede for them."
3. 1 John 2: 1b. "And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous."
1. Psalm 2: 6. "Yet I have set my king upon Zion, my holy mountain."
2 . Isaiah 9: 7. " Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David and over his kingdom, establishing and upholding it with justice and with justice from henceforth even for ever."
3. Luke 1: 32-23. "This will be great and will be called Son of the Highest: and the Lord God will give the throne of David his father. And he shall reign over the house of Jacob forever; and of his kingdom there will be no end. "
1. Matthew 28:18. "And coming Jesus spoke to them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and on earth".
2. Ephesians 1:22. "And He put all things under his feet and gave him head over all things to the Church".
3. 1 Corinthians 15:25. "For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet."
1. What do the following passages teach us about the nature of Christ's work as a prophet? Exodus 7: 1;Deuteronomy 18:18; Ezekiel 3:17.
2. What types of Christ in the Old Testament are given to us in the following passages: John 1: 29; 1 Corinthians 5: 7; Hebrews 3: 1; 4:14; 8: 3-5; 9: 13¬14; 10: 1-14; 13: 11-12?
3. What lessons about the kingdom of God we find in these passages? 1 John 3: 3, 5; 18: 36-37. Romans 14:17; 1 Corinthians 4:20.